The Frugal Four exhibit a British attitude to European integration

The proposal put forward by the European Commission to issue common debt to finance the economic recovery from the coronavirus pandemic is a remarkable and unprecedented step in EU solidarity. Despite Germany and France backing it, a small but significant group of member states remain vehemently opposed to parts of the plan. Their position looks similar to previous British complaints about the EU, highlighting that this debate is not just about money. It is driven by fundamentally different views on further European integration, argues Pepijn Bergsen (Chatham House).

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